A milling machine is a machine tool used for the complex shaping of metal and other solid materials. Its basic form is that of a rotating cutter
or endmill which rotates about the spindle axis (similar to a drill), and a movable table to which the workpiece is affixed. That is to say the
cutting tool generally remains stationary (except for its rotation) while the workpiece moves to accomplish the cutting action. Milling machines
may be operated manually or under computer numerical control (see CNC).
Milling machines can perform a vast number of complex operations, such as slot cutting, planing, drilling, rebating, routing, etc.
Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut, and to sluice away the resulting swarf.
There are two main types of mill: the vertical mill and the horizontal mill. In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented.
Milling cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered,
giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bedmill and the turret mill. In a turret
mill the spindle remains stationary during cutting operations and the table is moved both perpendicular to and parallel to the spindle axis to
accomplish cutting. In the bedmill, however, the table moves only perpendicular to the spindle's axis, while the spindle itself moves parallel
to its own axis. Also of note is a lighter machine, called a mill-drill. It is quite popular with hobbyists, due to its small size and lower price.
These are frequently of lower quality than other types of machines, however.
Most CNC milling machines or machining centers are computer controlled vertical mills with the ability to move the spindle vertically along the Z-axis.
This extra degree of freedom permits their use in engraving applications, and also allows to create 2.5D surfaces such as relief sculptures. When
combined with the use of conical tools or a ball nose cutter, it also significantly improves milling precision without impacting speed, providing a
cost-efficient alternative to most flat-surface hand-engraving work.